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Lesson 3.1

Conjunctions

Las conjunciones
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Conjunctions are used to connect words and/or clauses and are sometimes also referred to as “linking words”. There are two types of conjunction (coordinating and subordinating) and their position within the sentence depends on the type of conjunction. In addition, conjunctions have three forms.

The most commonly used conjunctions are: “and”, “but” and “or”.

Examples:

 She works at a bank and goes to university.
 I like to swim in the ocean, but only if the water is warm.
 We can study now or later.

Types of Conjunctions

1. Coordinating Conjunctions: This type of conjunction is used when we want to connect two clauses that have the same value or are grammatically equal.

  and,   but,   however,   or,   so,   then,   therefore,

Position: Coordinating conjunctions are always located between the words or phrases that they connect.

Examples:

 She likes to sing and dance.
 I want to move to London so I am studying English.
 They are moving to Barcelona, however they really like Madrid.

2. Subordinating Conjunctions: We use this type of conjunction when one of the clauses of the sentence depends on the other (subordinate clause); the subordinate clause does not make sense without the main clause. Most conjunctions are of this type.

  although,   as,   after,   before,   if,   since,   so that,
  until,   when

Position: Subordinating conjunctions generally are found in front of the subordinate clause.

Examples:

 I have been working at the bank since 2005.
 She is studying English so that she can move to London.
 They went to the beach although it was raining.

Form

Conjunctions have three forms:

1. Simple: a single word
2. Compound: more than one word that is generally followed by “as” or “that
3. Correlative: surrounding an adjective or adverb, such as “if…then”.

Below is a list of conjunctions with their definition, type and form.

C = Coordinating conjunction
S = Subordinating conjunction

Conjunction/Definition Form C S
  after
following in time; at a later time
simple X
  although
though; despite the fact that; used when making a statement that differs from or contrasts with a previously made statement}
simple X
  and
used to join/connect words or clauses; presents non-contrasting objects or ideas; used to start a new clause that continues or adds to a previous clause; added to or in addition; plus
simple X
  as
to the same degree or amount; used to introduce an example
simple X
  as…as
used for making comparisons, to say that two things are equal in some way
correlative X
  as long as
provided/providing; on condition that; if and only if
compound X
  as soon as
when; immediately after something happens
compound X
  as well as
in addition to; and
compound X
  because
for the reason that
simple X
  before
at an earlier time
simple X
  both…and
used to indicate that two people or things are being referred to rather than just one
correlative X
  but
presents a contrast or exception
simple X
  either…or
used to indicate choices or possibilities; one or the other of two
correlative X
  even if
used to stress that something will happen despite something else that might prevent it
compound X
  even though
a stronger way to say “though” or “although
compound X
  however
presents a contrast or exception
simple X
  if
used to talk about the result or effect of something that may happen or be true; used with conditional statements
simple X
  in case
used to talk about something that might happen or be true
compound X
  in order to
to make it possible for something to happen
compound X
  moreover
in addition
simple X
  neither…nor
used to indicate two or more things about which something is not true; not one or the other of two people or things
correlative X
  nevertheless
in spite of; however
simple X
  nor
presents a non-contrasting negative idea
simple X
  now that
since something is true; because of the fact that something happened
compound X
  or
presents an alternative; used to introduce another choice or possibility
simple X
  once
at the moment when; as soon as
simple X
  since
from the time in the past when; used to introduce a statement that explains the reasons for another statement
simple X
  so
presents a consequence; for that reason; therefore
simple X
  so that
to make it possible for something to happen; in order to
compound X
  then
used to indicate what happened or happens next; used to indicate what must be true or what should happen if something else happens
simple X
  therefore
presents a reason; because of that
simple X
  though
although; despite the fact that; used when making a statement that differs from or contrasts with a previously made statement
simple X
  unless
used to say what will happen or be true if something else does not happen or is not true
simple X
  until
up to the time or point that
simple X
  when
at, during or just after the time that; used to say what happens or is true in a particular situation
simple X
  whereas
used to describe how two people, groups, etc. are different
simple X
  whether
if it is or was true that
simple X
  whether…or
used to indicate choices or possibilities
correlative X
  yet
presents a contrast or exception
simple X
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