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Lesson 8.3

Giving Reason

Dar razón
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Below you will find more uses of linking words.

Giving a Reason or Cause

The linking words found in the list below are used to present a reason or cause.

Because

This is the most commonly used linking word for giving reason or cause. It can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, though it is most frequently found in the middle. If we want to follow it with a noun, we must use “of”.

Example:

 Learning English is important because it is an international language.

Since

Used in much the same way as “because”.

Example:

 Since it is an international language, learning English is important.

As

Used in much the same way as “because”.

Example:

 As it is an international language, learning English is important.

Due to

This linking word must be followed by a noun. If we want to follow it with a clause, we must use “due to the fact that”.

Example:

 Learning English is important due to the fact that it is an international language.

Owing to

The rules for this linking word are the same as “due to”.

Example:

 Owing to the fact that it is an international language, learning English is important.

Giving a Result or Effect

The following linking words are used to show effect or results and all are used in a similar manner. Other than ‘so’, they all tend to be formal and more often used in written English. Generally, these linking words are found at the beginning of a sentence, before the result. “So”, on the other hand, is more informal and used most often in spoken English. It is also frequently found in the middle of the sentence.

As a result

Example:

 The company had an excellent year. As a result, all staff will receive a bonus.

Therefore

Example:

 The company had an excellent year. Therefore, all staff will receive a bonus.

So

Example:

 The company had an excellent year, so all staff will receive a bonus.

Consequently

Example:

 The company had an excellent year. Consequently, all staff will receive a bonus.

As a consequence

Example:

 The company had an excellent year. As a consequence, all staff will receive a bonus.

Accordingly

Example:

 The company had an excellent year. Accordingly, all staff will receive a bonus.

Giving Examples

To provide examples, we can use one of the following linking words:

For example

“For example” can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. When used at the beginning, it is always followed by a comma. When used in the middle of a sentence, we must use a comma before and after.

Example:

 There are many things we can do to help protect the environment. For example, we can recycle and use energy efficient appliances.

Such as

We use this linker within a sentence. It is never found at the beginning of a sentence and the comma is only necessary before, not after “such as”.

Example:

 There are many things we can do to help protect the environment, such as recycle and use energy efficient appliances.

For instance

Follows the same rules as “for example”.

Example:

 There are many things we can do to help protect the environment. For instance, we can recycle and use energy efficient appliances.
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